The Reuben Waite Barn – and a Dream-Comes to Life!

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We have had a very special project for Green Mountain Timber Frames in the works for over a year. Despite some delays in light of the current coronavirus outbreak, we are moving forward with raising the barn that will become our very own craftsman workshop! 

The Reuben Waite Barn

Last year, we became aware of a barn that needed saving. It was in very rough condition on the outside when we first visited it. The family that owned it had done what they could to keep it standing and shedding water, but it had no foundation to speak of, and it was beyond the possibility of being repaired in place. 

exterior of 1700 barn before restoration

As rough as it appeared, we were blown away by the beauty and craftsmanship when we stepped inside!

Discovering the Galway Barn Green Mountain Timber Frames

After I purchased the barn, my family and I began digging into the history of the barn and it’s people.

Sara

With the help of kind folks at the Galway Preservation Society as well as the resources and help from the wonderful Brookside Museum in Ballston Spa, we learned that the barn was most likely built by Reuben Waite. He and his son, whose name was also Reuben, began farming the land in the 1780s or 1790s. They are listed in early census data as being farmers, coopers, and basket makers. We found and visited the resting place of the family less than a mile from the farm and barn.

Vermont cemetary - graves of Waite family

One great gift was the opportunity to meet much of the family who had been the caretakers of the barn since the early 1900s. We were able to hear stories about growing up playing and working in the barn from the lovely 104-year-old matriarch of the family! 

Reuben Waite did beautiful work-worthy of a cooper-which is the art of making wooden buckets! Even the braces on this frame are hand hewn.

post joinery Green Mountain Timber Frames

The timber frame has an ingenious groove in the gable and eve beams, which received the beautifully chamfered siding boards. This method both ensured that water would be shed away from the building, and also reduced the number of nails needed to install the siding. This is significant because nails were hard to get or make in the 1700s.

A low percentage of the original boards were salvageable, but the ones that did survive the centuries are remarkable!

wide siding board Green Mountain Timber Frames

Last fall, the Green Mountain Timber Frames crew, with additional help from my family, dismantled the barn and brought it back to Middletown Springs. First we cleaned it out and created a safe working deck at loft height. 

Interior taking down Galway Barn Green Mountain Timber Frames

Then we removed the metal roof, the older cedar shingle roof, and the wide roof boards. Next was removing the wooden pegs that held the joinery in place for so very long. A few of the pegs gave us stubborn resistance after living so tightly in place for at least 220 years! But we eventually got them all out, and saved the pegs that survived the ordeal.

peg popping barn restoration Green Mountain Timber Frames

Restoration of the Reuben Waite Barn

Throughout this spring and summer, we have been working on the restoration of the timber frame. We washed the beams and the wide boards. 

washing roof boards from 1700 barn

Water had leaked through the roof at some point, and we had to make careful repairs to the 42-foot top plates. We made a canoe out of one section of the beam, and then glued in a new hardwood core to make it sound once more.

repair in top plate Green Mountain Timber Frames

Once repairs were made, we assembled first the 42-foot plate walls, and then the 30-foot bents on sawhorses. This allowed us to check the joinery and peg holes.

restored bent barn restoration Green Mountain Timber Frames

Now the frame is ready to be erected, and we could not be more excited!

Building a Stone Foundation 

We want the Reuben Waite barn to fit into our life aesthetic and appreciation of hand-crafted, people-powered, and communal crafting.  We also wanted to avoid making more of a longterm impact on the land than necessary, and to express our gratitude to the land for all of its gifts. In light of this, we decided to collect rocks right from our shop property and to put the barn back on a stone foundation. So, this spring we went to work collecting rocks! By the way, they are plentiful in our fields and gardens! (Rocks are one of Vermont’s best crops, a fact to which local farmers can attest.)

collecting rocks for barn foundation Green Mountain Timber Frames

Ethan Bodin is a remarkable member of our restoration crew. He is also a talented stone mason, and is part of Vermont Landscaping and Stonework. He and Jeb went to work laying out the stones to create the new foundation.

Vermont Landscaping and Stonework

They created a set of steps, as well as two traditional ramp entrances to what will be the large eve door openings. It turned out beautifully!
stone barn foundation Green Mountain Timber Frames

How Will the Reuben Waite Barn be Used?

After decades of restoring vintage barns for clients, we are now restoring this one to keep as our permanent craftsman workshop! Once closed in, the barn will serve as a space for traditional hand-tool woodworking. There will be a long L shaped workbench that incorporates a low interior beam original to the barn. There will be a loft library for our large collection of books about traditional timber framing and woodworking. The barn will house our collection of vintage tools, and we can’t wait to see family, friends, and community members using the space to explore some of the old and wise ways.  

And music. Of course there will be lots of music played in this space!

I am convinced that it is the history of this barn, starting with the old-growth trees from which it was crafted, and continuing through all the generations of people that have lived and worked inside it, that will lend grace and beauty to the space. I am so grateful and excited to see this dream coming to fruition, and I look forward to sharing photos from the barn raising very soon.

What do you give someone on his 227th birthday??

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It was “raising day” for a beautiful little corn barn that Jonathan Atwater built almost 200 years ago! On his 227th birthday, the Green Mountain Timber Frames team was putting the original roof boards back on the restored frame.

1790s timber frame barn restored in Vermont

The day was sunny but cold, and as my family took our normal morning walk to school, we took a detour through the town cemetery. We were there to pay our respects and visit the grave of Jonathan Atwater, born on February 8, 1793.

grave of Jonathan Atwater here in Middletown Springs VT

Exploring the History of this Wonderful Timber Frame 

We are very fortunate that the history of our very own Middletown Springs is recorded in a series of lectures that were delivered by Barnes Frisbie, a resident of the nearby town, Poultney Vermont. The lectures were given in 1867. What a treasure of a book, and a true gift to those of us here that seek to find the human and architectural stories in our history!

History related to the Atwater Corn House green mountain timber frames

I can’t help but share the story that Frisbie told in 1867 about the clearing of the land where the barn was built, which was accomplished by a character named Azor Perry: “In the spring of 1778 he (Mr. Perry) shouldered his ax, all he had to bring but the clothes he wore, and took possession of the land. It was the same piece of land long known as the Azor Perry farm, and now owned and occupied by Jonathan Atwater.”

Frisbie tells further of Azor’s clearing of the land and his construction of a simple cabin, which he covered with wooden poles and bark. He made himself a bedstead of poles and elm bark. He managed to get a cow the first summer, “which he wintered on brows; that is, he cut down trees and the cow ate the tops.” Imagine the hardship and fortitude needed to fashion a house and fields with just an axe!

Azor Perry had eleven children, and one of his daughters married a man named Jonathan Atwater. Together they developed the land further, building a corn barn and a cider press. The corn barn is mentioned in the fabulous 1867 book as being located “between the Atwater house and cider mill.” Both of these other buildings were already gone when we became involved, but the old stone foundations can still be seen.

The corn barn fell on hard times in recent decades, due to neglect and a leaky roof. Green Mountain Timber Frames purchased the structure, disassembled it, and restored it. That brings us back to the present day. Thanks to some wonderful folks who partnered with us to put the frame back up, it is now standing strong and tall once more.

Atwater frame erected green mountain timber frames

How did we put a timber frame up in the middle of winter?

The Vermont weather had been a pretty chilly setting. Speaking of setting, we used a foundation system that was new to us, and that worked out really well. Our clients felt strongly that they did not want to disturb the ground or surrounding trees more than necessary.  The solution was to put the frame on metal piers instead of digging a big hole for concrete. We were fortunate to find just the guy for the job! Meet Zach Laporte.

technopost installation green mountain timber frames barn home

We had kept hay bales on each of the point load points for the building in order to keep frost from getting too deep into the ground. After we marked each post location, Zach installed the eighteen metal posts. The “helical piles” have an auger profile on the base, and are literally screwed into the ground. Zach watched the hydraulic gauges as the posts went in, which is a way to measure the weight that the pile will sustain based on the soil type and density. One of my favorite features was getting all of the post tops on a perfectly level plane. Zach and I used a transit to mark the posts once the bases were sunk below the frost line, and then Zach cut each one off. A metal bracket was installed to anchor our timber sills, and we were ready for a raising!

cutting top of technopost green mountain timber frames barn home

Thanks to this foundation system, we were able to tuck the frame in between some beautiful old trees without damaging them.

Raising day for the Atwater Corn Barn

The weather was beautiful on the appointed day, and we started the barn raising at 11:00 AM when our clients arrived.

raising morning atwater frame green mountain timber frames

It was crisp, and we had one small dilemma: the sill mortises had some ice in there where we needed to set the post bottoms. Thankfully, Andy had brought his hairdryer to work with him! It worked great.

melting ice in mortise green mountain timber frames

It was a treat to this entire barn raising without a machine! This was a good old fashioned “1,2,3,  Hoist!” type of day.

raising a bent atwater green mountain timber frames

By evening we had the main frame up and had started the rafters.

putting up rafters atwater barn green mountain timber frames

Day two started with shoveling some wet snow and then working through a freezing drizzle, but we still managed to get the eve addition up, and most of the rafters installed.

evergreen on atwater frame green mountain timber frames

In order to provide more space in the barn for a small bath, kitchen, and sitting area, we had used vintage materials from our inventory to add an eve addition. I especially love how the addition rafters look.

Atwater barn home addition rafters green mountain timber frames

Over the next few days, we installed the original roof boards and vintage siding that will be the interior show surface.

installing roof boards atwater barn home green mountain timber frames

installing boards atwater barn green mountain timber frames

Now, a local contractor is hard at work building an insulated stud wall and a rafter system around the frame. The barn home will have a partial loft for sleeping, and an open floor plan for most of the space.

interior of Atwater barn home green mountain timber frames

I can’t wait to see it with windows and doors looking out at the pond below! It has truly been a privilege to play a role in giving this barn another life.
interior of atwater main frame green mountain timber frames

Wishing all of our friends and fans good health in these challenging times.

The Green Mountain Timber Frames team

Tales from the Atwater Corn Barn

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“Mr. Perry procured a deed of one of the original proprietors of the town of Tinmouth in 1777 of a large piece of land, then in that town, now Middletown.” So begins the story of one of our most magnificent barn frames for sale.

1790s timber frame barn restored in Vermont

How do we know this?
Because this history of our very own Middletown Springs is recorded in a series of lectures that were delivered by Barnes Frisbie, a resident of the nearby town, Poultney Vermont. The lectures were given in 1867. What a treasure of a book, and a true gift to those of us here that seek to find the human and architectural stories in our history!

History related to the Atwater Corn House green mountain timber frames

Frisbie continues the tale: “In the spring of 1778 he (Mr. Perry) shouldered his ax, all he had to bring but the clothes he wore, and took possession of the land. It was the same piece of land long known as the Azor Perry farm, and now owned and occupied by Jonathan Atwater.”

Frisbie tells further of Azor’s clearing of the land and his construction of a simple cabin, which he covered with wooden poles and bark. He made himself a bedstead of poles and elm bark. He managed to get a cow the first summer, “which he wintered on brows; that is, he cut down trees and the cow ate the tops.” Imagine the hardship and fortitude needed to fashion a house and fields with just an axe!

In 1779, Perry was married in Bennington, Vermont. In the book from 1867, we are told that, “He had managed, in the year before he was married, to save enough to get a calico wedding dress for his wife, and some few indispensable articles of household furniture to commence with.”

Azor Perry was apparently a renowned and fearless hunter. There are stories told—no doubt growing with each telling around the tavern table not far from his homestead—of his bold encounters with bears. In one of these tales, Perry was called on by his neighbors to help with a particularly troublesome bear that was killing sheep and hogs, and damaging the crops on West Street. A great deal of effort had been made to kill this bear, but the creature had alluded all attempts thus far. The neighbors decided to enlist the help of Azor Perry, and he agreed.

After asking for the help of one other man, Perry headed into the corn field while a small crowd watched at a distance. He told his companion to go closer to the bear, shoot at it, and then run back. “If you kill it, very well. If not, he will be after you. Run behind me—I will stand here.”

Indeed, the bear was wounded, and in a rage, it ran at Perry. The story goes that Azor cooly stood his ground until the bear was just twenty yards away, and then fired. The flintlock gun misfired! Again and again, Perry snapped the trigger as the bear advanced, finally getting the gun to fire just as the bear reached him. As told in the 1867 lecture, “In this affair, he did not appear to manifest any fear or any other feelings except that we was vexed at his gun.” This incident happened on the Buxton Farm, which is just across the brook from our Green Mountain Timber Frames shop.

Azor Perry had eleven children, and one of his daughters married a man named Jonathan Atwater. Together they developed the land further, building a corn barn and a cider press. The corn barn is mentioned in the fabulous 1867 book as being located between the Atwater house and cider mill.

The corn barn fell on hard times in recent decades, due to neglect and a leaky roof. Green Mountain Timber Frames purchased the structure, disassembled it, and we are now delighted to have the restored frame standing at our shop property.

Here is a photo of the frame when it was being disassembled at its original location:

Atwater Corn House interior view green mountain timber frames

It sat on stone piers high above the ground. This was because corn and grain were stored inside, and the elevation helped to keep rodents at bay. Extra support beams were added along the eve walls where vertical bins held the weighty corn as it dried.

Reerecting the Atwater Timber Frame

We re-erected the frame this summer. We started setting the sills for the barn at 6:30 in the morning, and had the main cube of the frame up by lunchtime.

Here is a photo of the barn’s most recent raising day:

historic barn raising in Vermont

We set the timber-framed deck on temporary wooden piers and leveled it.

Then the bents were raised one by one, and the top plates and braces installed at the eve:

Green Mountain Timber Frames crew raising bents

Rafters were put in place, and we could really see this structure taking shape again.

We have put a roof on the Atwater Corn Barn, and applied siding. It is a beautiful space!

restored historic barn for sale by Green Mountain Timber Frames

The barn was originally used to store and dry corn on the cob, and it also had one bay dedicated to living space- presumably for seasonal farm help. I envision the future use of this barn to be a cabin, a space for writing or art, or as a traditional farm outbuilding once more.

I hope that we have done honor to the courage and fortitude of Azor Perry and his son-in-law Jonathan Atwater with our restoration of this barn. I recently visited the grave of Jonathan Atwater here in our cemetery.

grave of Jonathan Atwater here in Middletown Springs VT

This barn is for sale! 

You can see more photos of the 18×30 barn as well as drawings of the space here.


Please let us know if you are interested in the Atwater Corn Crib or another one of our historic barns.

– Luke and the Green Mountain Timber Frames team

tel:1-802-774-8972
luke@GreenMountainTimberFrames.com

 

 

 

Barn Raising and Open House this Friday!

It has been a busy start to the summer at Green Mountain Timber Frames! After several weeks of traveling, we are excited to be spending this week at our home base in Middletown Springs erecting two gorgeous vintage barns on the property.
The larger of the barns is a gunstock two story timber frame that dates from the 1790s. The beach posts are beautiful! We set the sills yesterday in the meadow behind our shop.
preparing 1790s timber frame for barn raising in Vermont
This frame will eventually go down to be raised on permanent sills on Long Island once our client has the proper building permits and the site work completed. We are excited to get to enjoy it here in Vermont for a while!
Here is one of the assembled bents- ready to be hoisted!
gable wall from timber frame barn - 16th century
The second frame that is being erected today is the Atwater Corn House. It came from Middletown Springs originally, and we have found some fantastic history on the barn from a book published in 1867. Here is the barn as it stood on its original stone piers:
1790s timber frame barn restored in Vermont
This morning we set the original timber-framed deck up next to our shop.
preparing for barn raising of restored vermont farm house
The bents are assembled, and the frame will be standing by the end of today (Thursday).
raising reclaimed wood from timber frame barn home in Vermont
Read a bit more about this barn for sale!
Timber frame construction has always been about community- friends and neighbors coming together to help one another put up houses and barns. We want to honor that tradition. Please join us for a celebratory open house on Friday, July 12, 5 – 8PM at 430 West Street, Middletown Springs. We will be grilling; bring a dish to share, your beverage of choice, and an instrument to play.
We had so much fun celebrating the last timber frame raising at our shop, and we are looking forward to this celebration as well! We hope to see you there.

1790s timber frame barn and Green Mountain TImber Frames crew

Saving the Barns of Daniels’ Farm: A Journey to the Northeast Kingdom

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waterford gunstock frame_historic old barn

The Green Mountain Timber Frames crew has just returned from week three in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. We are continuing to disassemble 4 old barns on a historic farm. While this past week was not as dramatic as the take-down of the corn crib that was featured in our last blog, we did make incredible progress as well as some discoveries. We even made some new friends in the area.

Removing the siding and roof from a 26×50 barn

One of the largest barns on the property was once a magnificent cow barn. Unfortunately, the posts have rotted to the point that we cannot restore this barn. It is rare for us to turn down a “save and restore” opportunity but in this case, the choice became very clear as we removed the siding and discovered vast rot in the posts.

Here is what we discovered underneath the vertical siding boards:

wood shaving insulation on historic barn

The walls had been packed tight with wood shavings and sawdust. The Daniels Farm, where this barn resides, had a sawmill on the premises at one point in its history. It must have seemed like a good idea to use the shavings for insulation. However, the end result was that the sawdust held moisture and rotted the frame.

Cows living on the inside of the barn created a lot of moisture through their living and breathing. In the cold weather, this warm humid air moved through air gaps in the shavings, hit the cold exterior boards of the barn, and condensed into water. The sawdust acted to hold this moisture.

A sawmill turned…apple-crusher

An interesting fact we learned about the Daniels’ sawmill was that when it came to be apple picking season each year, the workings of the sawmill were converted to power a giant apple crusher. Apparently, the Daniels and their neighbors made a great deal of apple cider when they weren’t busy making sawdust!

Surprise friends at the Daniels’ fawmill

Early in the week, we met some residents of this barn while removing the siding. And oh my goodness, it was cuteness overload!

baby raccoons hiding in historic Vermont old barn

We built a ramp down from the wall cavity where this family of 3 baby raccoons was living and then left the area alone for the rest of the day. I was so worried that we had scared the mother away.  However, at the end of the day as we were getting into the truck to leave, Andy looked back at the barns. To our surprise and relief, we could see the profile of the mother raccoon perched in the peak of the barn. She had never left at all! Thankfully, we saw little footprints at the bottom of the ramp we had built when we returned in the morning. Mother had led them out to a new home.

While this barn is not restorable, it is certainly salvageable. We will use the roof boards, the siding, and many of the sound beams on future restoration projects. We will even use the nails and the metal roofing.

Speaking of roofing…it was quite a project to remove it all on a hot afternoon!

removing metal from roof of waterford barn

Next, we removed the roof boards. They have beautiful patina and will be a perfect match for replacing some of the boards on the other barns on the property that we will be restoring.

GMTF team removing roof boards waterford old barn

Next, we lowered the rafters to the deck.

Green Mountain Timber Frames crew removing half-round rafters

We wrapped up our work on this barn by popping the pegs out of the sound braces and timbers. When we bring in a machine in a couple of weeks, we will be able to hoist the heavy beams safely down to the ground.

We came across an incredible piece of nail artwork while we were pulling the rafter tips apart. Cut nails were used, and some of them were made from fairly soft steel. Isaac discovered this incredible shape:

curled cut nail art_antique nail from historic Vermont barn

The nail had split apart lengthwise as it was hammered into the rafter. One piece of the nail went straight in, and the other curled up to form this beautiful profile!

This unique nail was one of many thousand nails that we have pulled over the past weeks. They range from large to small, and from hand forged to machine-made square nails. While pulling and de-nailing boards, we keep two five gallon buckets on hand: one for the nails that we can re-use, and one for the bad nails and other scraps of metal that we can recycle. We filled many buckets this past week!

buckets of salvaged nails from timber frame projects

We will soak the nails that are in good shape in vinegar, which will loosen the corrosion. A quick cleaning after that, and these old nails will be as good as new.

At GTMF, we are dedicated to preserving the historic architecture of New England. We restore old barns and build timber frame homes. Using nails like these and the wood beams salvaged from barns like the ones on the Daniels’ Farm, we are able to create historic homes built to last for centuries to come.

If you’re interested in learning more about our work, building a timber frame barn or owning your own barn home, contact us.

An Ode to Farmers: The Incredible Ingenuity of Past Barn Repairs

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Today, Matt and I were visiting barns on behalf of the Green Mountain Timber Frames team. I am constantly amazed by the creative ingenuity of New England’s early farmers. These brave souls were—and are still—truly a backbone of the beautiful and communal aspects of our local New England culture.

An Ode to Farmers

Having grown up on a working dairy farm, I have witnessed the challenges that face farmers on a daily basis. Thinking of my father, my mother, and my grandfather as they strived to keep a farm running, I pondered the necessity for creativity and tenacity when it comes to getting that hay bailer or tractor running when it is desperately needed. I believe the same principle applied to the ways in which early farmers dealt with their timber frame barns.

Today, as we assessed one particular barn, we discovered some very clever repairs made to the frame over the years. We were inside an incredible 32×52 hand hewn timber frame barn that is badly fatigued and in need of help.

vintage timber frame barn home | green mountain timber frames

Unfortunately, the barn abutting this one was in much worse shape, and I felt quite deflated and heartbroken to see it.

collapsed vintage barn | Green mountain timber frames

This collapsed building still has a few vintage boards and timbers that can be salvaged.

But let’s return to the happier prospect of the barn we had come to see.

52-Feet of Chesnut Timbers

It was built very early, and has many American chestnut timbers. The rafters are hewn, and the posts are massive at 11×11 inches. Of the four timbers that span the length of the building, 3 are an incredible 52-feet of continuous hand hewn chestnut, with the fourth having a scarf joint to join two timbers together.

Imagine that: 52 foot American chestnut timbers that were shaped with a broad axe and an adze- and lots of spirit and grit.

Incredibly, one of the bents is a clear-span 32-foot timber truss. This means it was built strong enough to not need any interior posts, allowing the farmer to move a wagon and animals around inside with ease. In the next photo, you can see the two chestnut timbers that create the truss. They are tied together in the middle with a vertical timber, creating a remarkably strong system.

chestnut timber truss vintage barn | Green mountain timber frames

What about the clever repairs?

It seems that at some point in the history of this barn’s use, the lower timber, which measures 11 x 18 inches by 32-feet, developed a split. Matt and I were studying the repair that was done in the past, and we realized that it was made using the metal rim of an old wagon wheel!

giant chestnut timber frame truss Green mountain timber frames

Here is a close-up of the ingenious repair, recycling no doubt a farm implement that’s use had gone by the wayside:

wagon wheel repair to chestnut timber | Green mountain timber frames

We also discovered a wonderful thing for us modern timber framers to see: a likely mistake made by our mentors who lived two hundred years ago. In a way, it is refreshing to see that even those incredible craftspeople from the past occasionally made an error like we sometimes do!

One of the 32-foot timbers did not have a typical tenon. It sure looks like someone cut this timber too short. We have all been there who have cut mortise and tenons time after time. It is a big “whoops” when it involves an 11 x 18 inch by 32-foot American chestnut timber that was cut and hewn by axe and adze!

In the next photo, you can see where a spline was added to the end of the girt, essentially adding back the section that was missing. If you look carefully at the underside of this massive timber, you can see where a 2-inch plank was let in, and then pegged thoroughly.

sprine repair on vintage timber frame chestnut beam | Green mountain timber frames

This ingenious repair reminds me of a saying given to me by a wise builder when I was starting out as a framer:

“The sign of a great carpenter is not whether you make mistakes or not; rather, it is about how creative you can be about fixing your mistakes when they happen!”

I am trying to remember what error I had made as a 22-year-old to earn me that old “chestnut” of wisdom. I don’t remember what it was, but I am grateful for the lesson that was imparted to me that day, and I remember it still. Well, the repair in this barn held up well. Approximately 210 years, and holding strong!

splined repair to chestnut timber frame

Speaking of holding strong, we saw a real example of the strength of a single oak peg, or trunnion, used in the old days to fasten the timber joinery together without the use of nails. As I mentioned earlier, this barn is struggling, and due to a leak in the roof, one of the 32-foot girts that span the building has rotted completely away.

Incredibly, the 12-foot post that used to be supported by that missing timber is still in the air as part of the queen system supporting the rafters. Here it is:

strength of a single peg in vintage barn

It is amazing to me how these well-crafted barns can hold together in spite of serious distress! Just one peg. Hm, that seems like a possible metaphor for what each of us humans can do for holding together the values that we treasure in our communities. I will save that musing for later. But think about it- a single one-inch peg holding up that 12-foot hardwood post. Incredible.

Just a couple miles from this grand old barn, there stands another. Unfortunately, the main structure is beyond restoration. But when I climbed into the icy basement, I was amazed by a support for the barn that was added sometime in the first half of the 20th century. Clearly, the floor system had been sagging, and a clever farmer knew just how to form up a support for the beams.

Once again, a derelict symbol of past farming practice was recycled. Just take a look at this:

creative concrete forms green mountain timber frames

Old wooden barrels, no doubt leaky or just no longer used, were stacked up with the bottoms cut out. After that, it was as simple as pouring in the concrete! The wood of those barrels is long gone, but their “fingerprints” left no doubt how this impressive pier was created.

Here is to all those who have worked creatively to sustain and stabilize these majestic structures from the past, and also to all in our communities who desire to see our cultural farming heritage preserved for the future!

May those of us dedicated to preserving these structures be as creative, industrious, and as dedicated as those who have come before us.

Interested in one of our old barns for sale?

Give us a holler!

 802.774.8972

 

Dunlap Barn Restoration, and Discoveries about a Civil War Veteran

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This past week, we finished the barn restoration of a structure from around 1850. The old barn stood next to a dirt road in Brandon, Vermont. Thanks to the commitment of the family that now owns the property, the barn, which was in very bad shape, is now restored and re-erected on the same land.

restoration barn home green mountain timber frames

Remembering a Civil War Veteran

In digging into the history of this particular barn, we found that a casualty of one war is tied to the history of the barn that we have just restored. Next to the original barn location, we found the burial site of William Dunlap. The gravestone tells that he was part of the Vermont 12th infantry and that he died July 31st, 1863, at the age of 25.

I would like to pause here and take this opportunity to thank our veterans for their service to this country. In particular, I want to acknowledge and express gratitude to one of our own team, Andy, who served in the army for eight years. So many have served, and the sacrifices are tremendous.

In the next photo, Andy and I were finally able to read the memorial stone for Dunlap. We had stopped earlier on a clear day, and could not decipher the faded engraving. However, something about the rain running down the stone on this particular day allowed us to read the words.

William Dunlap, Vermont 12th regiment green mountain timber frames

It was a surreal moment to be at his grave and to reflect on the life and death of this young man. He joined the 12th regiment that went into camp at Brattleboro on September 25, 1862. The group was mustered into United States service on October 4 and left Vermont on October 7 for Washington DC. It seems likely that William never returned to the hills of Vermont before his death. The Vermont 12th was near Gettysburg for that significant battle and was assigned to protect the corps train. Like so many in the Civil War, William died in a Virginia hospital of a simple disease just days after the Battle of Gettysburg.

William Dunlap 12th vermont regiment civil war veteran green mountain timber frames

It has been poignant to think about William. We reflected at his graveside on the likelihood that William spent his youth playing and working in this barn. While we have not been able to date the construction of the barn exactly, we believe it was built sometime between William’s birth and when he was a 12-year-old child. At the time of his death, the body was sent home to Vermont to be interred on the family farm.

While erecting the frame, we met another young man in his twenties. His grandmother has property nearby and he told us of swinging on the rope that was hanging in the hay loft of the barn. It is amazing to hear these stories—book ends on the story of this barn as it stood on its original foundation.

Now the frame stands again near the grave of William, and we are very grateful and proud of how the restoration turned out. I will take this opportunity to show some photos of the restored structure and the process of putting it back up.

Reerecting the Restored Barn

We erected the four bents first. These wall sections form the width of the building. The raising process took place during some very wet and overcast weather, and we even worked in falling snow on one of the days.

lifting a bent green mountain timber frames

Next, we set the 38 foot top plates onto the bents. In the next photo, Isaac checks the post tenon that is about to receive the top plate. In gunstock frames, the post has 2 perpendicular tenons at the top: one for the girt and one for top plate.

pegging a bent green mountain timber frames

barn raising top plate green mountain timber frames

A Modified Gunstock Timber Frame

The Dunlap barn is a style that is called “modified gunstock.” All gunstock frames had tapered posts that increase in size from post bottom to post top. These frames had this feature in order to provide increased bearing for the support of the upper horizontal timbers.

The posts get their name from the way in which they look like the upside down stock of a rifle. In a modified gunstock, the taper is oriented parallel with the eve of the building. The most important feature of gunstock frames is that the girt (beam going the width of the building) and the top plate (long beam going along the eve of the building) are at the same elevation. This makes an incredibly strong junction of timbers.

antique gunstock timber frame green mountain timber frames

The Dunlap barn has beautiful labels on the timbers and braces. These markings, sometimes referred to as “marriage marks,” were used to match each joint with its partner. Early frames were built flat on the ground before being erected, and each joint was scribed into its place. On raising day, the marriage marks ensured that each brace went in the proper place. We love studying these labels!

viewing vintage marriage marks on barn green mountain timber frames

Here are the marriage marks between a brace and its post:

marriage marks vintage timber frame green mountain timber frames

This frame had a couple of unique features in the rafter structure. First, the queen system that supports the rafters at mid-span had struts or braces that come from the posts down towards the center of the building. It was more common for these posts to be braced towards the eve in order to resist outward thrust of the roof load that could push the walls apart.

In a gunstock frame, where all the horizontal timbers come together at the same height, there is already incredible strength resisting outward thrust. For this reason, it was more important to these early craftspeople to install braces against the downward force or weight of the roof system and snow load that could push the queen posts in.

gunstock frame barn home green mountain timber frames

The second somewhat unusual feature in this barn is the way that the rafter system is braced to the five-sided ridge beam. In later buildings, there were often braces out on the two ends of the roof system. In this case, the timber framers installed a pair of braces right in the center of the roof.

vintage barn restored queen system green mountain timber frames

Installing the Roof Boards

We were able to reuse about 60% of the original roof boards and supplemented these with a few of the original wall boards as well as vintage material from our inventory. There were some beauties that went onto this roof! Imagine the size of the pine tree from which these boards were sawn.

beautiful barn boards green mountain timber frames

We are grateful that we had the opportunity to save and restore this vintage timber frame, and we are especially glad that it will remain not far from the resting place of William Dunlap, 12th Vermont Infantry.

May we respect and honor all our veterans as we work for peace in this world.

An Ingenious Corn Crib

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Corn Crib for Sale in Vermont

I first looked at this corn crib for sale last spring. The owner of the property called me, and in his very Vermont way explained that there was a barn on his property that his family could no longer maintain. The property had been in his family for quite some time, and he wanted this barn to be saved. I took a drive to Montpelier, I took a look, and I fell in love.

Old barns for sale_timber frame barn

I purchased the timber frame and we recently disassembled the barn. It was a “corn crib,” a name that applies to a very specifically designed barn. As the name implies, it was used for the drying and storing of corn as well as oats and other food stuff from the garden.

A Corn Crib Built to Last

As the farmer whose family has lived here for three generations told me: “When you moved onto a raw piece of land back in the day, you didn’t much care about your first house. You put something up quick to keep you dry and not frozen, and then you built something real nice to preserve food for the winter.” Well, the craftsmen who built this corn crib did it “real nice.”

Old barns for sale_timber frame barn_with staircase

These stairs lead to a lovely second floor with a steep roof pitch and two windows. We discovered two wooden barrels with sapling dovetailed rings that were tucked into bins. Sawdust was packed tightly around the barrels inside the bins, and it was clear that something very precious and sensitive to heat had been stored in these.

corn crib timber frame rafters

A Remarkable Louvered System

In order to dry and then preserve the corn, the walls were sided with an ingenious louvered system. The siding itself is narrow and gapped to allow lots of air movement through that would dry the corn out after harvest. However, the corn also had to be protected from rainstorms and drifting Vermont snow.

The solution? The builders crafted louvers that can rotate on wooden pegs to close the gaps between the siding. handcrafted louvers_old barn for sale

louvers_old barn for sale

The louvers were attached to each other by small staples so that they could be swung shut in gangs when the farmer saw a storm blowing in. It gave me great pause for reflection when I found a few kernals of corn left behind — from how many decades or even a century before? Of course, I had to save them to see if these corn seeds would germinate in my garden. (Stay tuned)

antique corn crib_corn seeds

We started the disassembly a few weeks ago by removing the roofing and then carefully labeling each roof board.

As we removed the roof boards, we were delighted to discover a name, scrawled in large red cursive, across several of the boards. The letters were faded, but readable. old timber frame barn_roof boards

A Peek into the History of the Corn Crib

Later that evening, I showed the property owner these boards, and it led to him sketching out for me more of the story of his farm. His great-grandfather had worked for someone with the same last name that we discovered on the boards. The gentleman was elderly and apparently farming was not easy, neither physically nor financially. He was unable to fully pay his farm help for the last few years of work on the farm. When the last family member died, the farm was left to the hired hand who had been loyal and worked without pay. That is how the family that I bought this corn crib from came to own the property.

Soon enough, we were down to the bare frame, which is hand hewn beech and pine.

small timber frame barn for sale

After labeling the floorboards, we popped out the ash tree pegs, and began tipping down the bents.

Carefuly Disassembly of the Corn Crib

We were grateful to the maple trees that stood sentry at the entrance as we were disassembling this small 18×22 frame by hand- without the use of a crane or other motorized equipment. In fact, we were able to disassemble this frame without ever firing the generator we had brought with us. It was a frame put up without electrical tools, and one that we took down with only minimal use of our battery tools.

vintage corn crib_tipping up

We labeled every mortise and tenon joint, and after 6 work days start to finish, the frame was down. We shipped the vintage beams and boards back to our shop and cleaned up the site of the structure.

Vermont site_barn restoration

I found it incredibly poignant to see the trees still standing around the perimeter of where this adorable corn crib has stood for two hundred years. I am proud and grateful, to and for the family that has cared for, used, and maintained this building for generations, to our skilled and careful team who took the time to pull each peg with conscientiousness and care, and to the trees from whom this frame was built so very long ago.

Are you looking for a corn crib for sale?

Let me know – I’d love to help.
Luke – (802) 774-8972 | luke@GreenMountainTimberFrames.com

 

The Race to Raise a Barn: 12 Days on Long Island

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In December, we spent twelve days down on Long Island putting up an early 1800s carriage barn. The original structure was 18-feet wide by 40-feet long. In order to accommodate the goals of our client, we added a saltbox addition onto the barn using vintage salvaged materials from our inventory. We loved the resulting look of the structure.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames_9

We spent the first part of our stay constructing and installing the sills for the building. Once they were completed, we assembled the bents on the ground and organized our rafters, braces, connecting timbers, and roof boards.

The crane arrived early on a frosty morning, and the first bent was erected and set into the sill mortises.

Raising the first Bent- Green Mountain Timber Frames

Bent number two went up next without a hitch, and we installed the horizontal connecting ties and braces.

Bent 2 slips into sill mortises

Installing horizontal timbers to connect bents

By lunchtime, we had bents three and four up, and all the pegs driven into braces and horizontals. We spent that afternoon installing a temporary deck to work off safely.

Bent three is set in place_Green Mountain Timber Frames

Driving more pegs_Green Mountain Timber Frames

On day two with the crane, we began installing rafter trusses. They were assembled on the ground, and the crane operator did an amazing job of guiding them right to the mortises in the top plates.

Rafter trusses are flown into place__Green Mountain Timber Frames

Glenn did a great job stabilizing and “aiming” the rafters with a tag line from the ground.

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carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames3

With the short daylight of December, we had no time to spare, and we were on sight from dawn till dusk. In the next photo, Jesse inspects a door post he has just installed.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames2

By the time we left Long Island, via the Orient Point ferry, we had the roof boards on and water proofing paper installed to protect the frame. The next crew to come in will install the structurally insulated panels that will keep this structure thermally tight and cozy.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames_8

The barn will be used as a garage on the first floor, with a studio guest apartment on the second floor. One of our favorite features of this barn is the twisted and gnarly nature of the horizontal beams that free span the upstairs living space. They have so much character!

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames_7 (2)

One real treat of the trip was getting to catch up with two fellow Vermonters, Peter and Christian Moore. They are friends from nearby us in Vermont who are truly artists in stone and brick. Peter and Christian are busy building a historic reproduction of the central fireplaces and chimney in a 1780s house that we put up on the same property earlier in the year.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames4

This central chimney has three fireboxes on the first floor, plus an incredible domed oven! The brick being used is salvaged from early colonial New England, and there is a brick arch that curves up to the timber ceiling.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames5

We can’t wait to go back and see Peter and Christian’s finished work! More of their artistry can be seen here at  Peter Moore Masonry.

carriage barn raising_Long Island_Green Mountain Timber Frames_6

This project was a real joy, and we loved getting to know the very fine carpenters who will be closing in the carriage barn and finishing it off.

Do you want to help preserve a piece of history? Dream of living in a restored barn home? Contact Us!  (802) 774-8972

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Last spring, we tipped up a new timber frame barn here in Vermont. We had first begun discussing the barn with the family over a year previously, and worked closely with them on the design for a 28-by-40 foot barn.

We shaped the timbers over the course of the winter, and it was ready for the arrival of spring… as were we! The owners will be using the new post and beam barn as a seasonal living space and as a place to indulge in their wine-making hobby. The project and our clients were a delight, and we want to share the story of this frame.

Timber frame barn in vineyard green mountain timber frames

During the design phase of the project, we decided with our clients to use local hemlock timbers, and settled on 10-by-10 inches as the size for all the posts, girts, and top plates. The timbers were sawn at a sawmill just five miles from the barn location.

Post joinery is cut for timber frame

We decided to construct this frame using a principal rafter and purlin system. This means that each 28-foot bent section has massive rafters which support horizontal purlins. In this design, the roof boards are put on the frame running vertically.

Shaping swoops on heavy purlin timbers

Jesse shapes the “swoops” on the ends of the heavy purlin timbers.

Another exciting feature of the barn design was the inclusion of four dormers in the roof structure. The barn will have a two-thirds loft where the dormer interior can be enjoyed up close, and the dormers in the cathedral space will provide natural light and aesthetic balance for the exterior.

One of the beautiful things about timber frame construction is that we can craft each joint and wooden connection “on the ground.” That way, on raising day, each labeled joint slides together and receives the oak pegs. Since we wanted to go through this preparation process on the dormers as well as with the larger sections of the barn, we assembled each side of the roof system flat on saw horses and got to work.

40 foot long roof system_Green Mountain Timber frames

This roof section is 40-feet long, and laying it out flat on the ground allowed us to check all the joinery and test-fit the dormers

We wanted to use a traditional ridge beam for the dormers. Because the pitch of the roof was 11 inches of rise for every 12 inches of run, the ridge beam had to be shaped to match the roof pitch rather than remaining at square, 90-degree angles. This made laying out and cutting the compound angles challenging. I remembered my grandfather’s old-fashioned miter box that he used when I spent time in his shop as a kid. We replicated my Papa’s angle box to cut our dormer ridge beam, and it worked great!

jig box for cutting ridge beam green mountain timber frames

We built a jig box to help us cut the complex angles on the dormer ridge beams.

dormer joinery on new timber frame roof

Matt inspects dormer joinery

We constructed and fit the four bents and assembled each of the 40-foot eve walls. We used math, geometry, and sharp tools to make certain that the frame would rise up straight and true on its foundation in the spring.

Timber frame bent assembled green mountain timber frames

Jesse enjoys the completion of a gable bent. There is an upper doorway framed in this gable that will lead from the loft out onto a small balcony.

Soon enough, spring arrived, and we were ready to put the frame up. Our client and his son helped us to whittle the proper points on the oak pegs. We use a “shaving horse” to shape the pegs. This ancient design works beautifully to hold the peg hands-free while a draw knife or spokeshave is used. Footwork operates the clamping mechanism.

shaping oak pegs green mountain timber frames

Our shaving horse works great for shaping pegs!

Next, we began assembling bents and driving the pegs to hold them fast.

Pegs are driven into a bent before it is tipped up

Pegs are driven into a bent before it is tipped up

Before we knew it, we were tipping up the final bent.

lifting final bent into timber frame baren

We absolutely love the way the four post bent design draws the eye down the center of the building and gives the whole thing a cathedral feel.

timber frame erected and pegged in Vermont

The lower cube of the frame is erected and pegged.

The next step was to install the top plates, which tie the bents together and support the weight of the rafter system.

green mountain timber frames new construction

Next, the principal rafters went up. As we set each pair, we fed the tenoned purlins into place, as well as the braces that we placed in the rafter system in order to make it ridged.

eve purlin placed in roof and dormers installed

We set an eve purlin into place

It was great fun to assemble the dormers – this time standing upright on the roof system instead of sitting flat on saw horses at the shop. We set the little ridge beams, rafters, and dormer posts. The pegs went in, and we were delighted with the result.

dormers and pitch on timber frame roof

The dormers are 5-feet wide, and the pitch is matched to the main roof.

Here is a crow’s eye view of the completed rafter system and the dormers:

purlin extensions and steel plates to create a generous roof overhang

We used purlin extensions and steel plates to create a generous roof overhang.

hemlock roof boards Green Mountain Timber Frames

The warm colors of the hemlock and roof boards are wonderful.

It was a great joy to collaborate with this family to create a structure in a beautiful setting that will be used and enjoyed for a very long time to come.

Here is hoping that many a glass of wine, crafted in this barn, gets raised by friends and family for generations! Cheers!


Do you dream of living, working or making wine in your own timber frame? At Green Mountain Timber Frames, we restore and build timber frame barns and homes, both new and old.

Give us a call.

completed dormer_Green mountain timber frames

I can imagine sitting in this dormer with a cup of coffee and enjoying the view for a very long time!